Drinking Water References:


Shaw GM , Ranatunga D, Quach T, Neri E, Correa A, Neutra RR. Trihalomethane exposures from municipal water supplies and selected congenital malformations. Epidemiology 2003; 14(2):191-199.
Ref ID: 236


Croen LA, Todoroff K, Shaw GM. Maternal exposure to nitrate from drinking water and diet and risk for neural tube defects. American Journal of Epidemiology 2001;153(4):325-331


Shaw GM, Malcoe LH, Milea A, Swan SH. Chlorinated water exposures and congenital cardiac anomalies (letter). Epidemiology 1991; 2(6):459-460


Shaw GM, Swan SH, Harris JA, Malcoe LH. Maternal water consumption during pregnancy and congenital cardiac anomalies. Epidemiology 1990; 1:206-211


Deane M, Swan SH, Harris JA, Epstein DM, Neutra RR. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in relation to water contamination, Santa Clara County, California, 1980-81. American Journal of Epidemiology 1989; 129(5):894-904

Downloadable study summary:

PDF file Nitrates & Neural Tube Defects