Smoking References:


Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Yang W, Iovannisci DM, Lammer E. Risk of limb deficiency defects associated with NAT1, NAT2, GSTT1, GSTM1, and NOS3 genetic variants, maternal smoking, and vitamin supplement intake. Am J Med Genet A 2006; 140(18):1915-1922.
Ref ID: 298


Shaw GM
, Iovannisci DM, Yang W, Finnell RH, Carmichael SL, Cheng S, Lammer EJ. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) genetic variants, maternal smoking, vitamin use, and risk of human orofacial clefts. Am J Epidemiol 2005;162:1207-14.
Ref ID: 287

Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Laurent C, Lammer EJ, Olney RS. Hypospadias and maternal exposures to cigarette smoke. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2005;19:406-12.
Ref ID: 285

Lammer EJ, Shaw GM, Iovannisci DM, Finnell RH. Maternal smoking, genetic variation of glutathione s-transferases, and risk for orofacial clefts. Epidemiology 2005;16:698-701.
Ref ID: 284


Lammer EJ, Shaw GM, Iovannisci DM, Van Waes J, Finnell RH. Maternal smoking and the risk of orofacial clefts: Susceptibility with NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms. Epidemiology 2004; 15(2):150-156.
Ref ID: 263

Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Yang W, Lammer EJ, Zhu H, Finnell RH. Limb deficiency defects, MSX1, and exposure to tobacco smoke. Am J Med Genet 2004; 125A(3):285-289.
Ref ID: 261


Shaw GM , Nelson V, Carmichael SL, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH, Rosenquist TH. Maternal periconceptional vitamins: interactions with selected factors and congenital anomalies?Epidemiology 2002; 13(6):625-630.
Ref ID: 230


Hartsfield JK Jr., Hickman TA, Everett ET, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Finnell RA. Analysis of the EPHX1 113 polymorphism and GSTM1 homozygous null polymorphism and oral clefting associated with maternal smoking. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2001 July22; 102(1):21-24


Torfs CP, Christianson RE. Effect of maternal smoking and coffee consumption on the risk of having a recognized Down syndrome pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 152(12):1185-1191


Torfs CP, Christianson RE. Maternal risk factors and major associated defects in infants with Down syndrome. Epidemiology 1999; 10(3):264-270


Schaffer DM, Velie EM, Shaw GM, Todoroff KP. Energy and nutrient intakes and health practices of Latinas and white non-Latinas in the 3 months before pregnancy. Journal of the American Diet Association 1998; 98(8):876-884


Shaw GM, Velie EM, Moreland K. Parental recreational drug use and risk for neural tube defects. American Journal of Epidemiology 1996; 144(12):1155-1160

Wasserman CR, Shaw GM, O'Malley CD, Tolarova MM, Lammer EJ. Parental cigarette smoking and risk for congenital anomalies of the heart, neural tube, or limb. Teratology 1996; 53:261-267

Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, Lammer EJ, O'Malley CD, Murray JC, Basart AM, Tolarova MM. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1996; 58 (3):551-561

Downloadable Study Summary:

PDF file Smoking and Oral Clefts

Funds for some studies were provided by the Cigarette and Tobacco Surtax Fund of the State of California through the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California, Grant 2RT0080.