Pesticide References:


Rull RP, Ritz B, Shaw GM. Validation of self-reported proximity to agricultural crops in a case-control study of neural tube defects. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2005.
Ref ID: 280


Shaw GM , Nelson V, Iovannisci DM, Finnell RH, Lammer EJ. Maternal occupational chemical exposures and biotransformation genotypes as risk factors for selected congenital anomalies. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 157(6):475-484.
Ref ID: 237


Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, O'Malley CD, Nelson V, Jackson RJ. Maternal pesticide exposure from multiple sources and selected congenital anomalies. Epidemiology 1999; 10(1):60-66


Grether JK, Harris JA, Neutra R, Kizer KW. Exposure to aerial malathion application and the occurrence of congenital anomalies and low birthweight. American Journal of Public Health 1987; 77(8):1009-1010

Downloadable study summaries:

PDF file Pesticides and Birth Defects
PDF file Los Pesticidas y Los Defectos de Nacimiento

The first study (Maternal Pesticide Exposure From Multiple Sources) was partially supported by the Cigarette and Tobacco Surtax Fund of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program, University of California, Grants1RT466 and 3RT0413.