Obesity and Body Mass References:


Velie EM, Shaw GM, Malcoe LH, Schaffer DM, Samuels SJ, Todoroff K et al. Understanding the increased risk of neural tube defect-affected pregnancies among Mexico-born women in California: immigration and anthropometric factors. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2006; 20(3):219-230.
Ref ID: 294


Anderson JL, Waller DK, Canfield MA, Shaw GM, Watkins ML, Werler, MM. Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, and central nervous system birth defects. Epidemiology. 2005;16(1):87-92.
Ref ID: 273


Carmichael SL , Shaw GM, Neri E, Schaffer DM, Selvin S. Physical activity and risk of neural tube defects. Maternal & Child Health Journal 2002; 6(3):151-157.
Ref ID: 229

Shaw GM , Nelson V, Moore CA. Prepregnancy body mass index and risk of multiple congenital anomalies. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2002; 107(3):253-255.
Ref ID: 223


Shaw GM, Todoroff K, Carmichael SL, Schaffer DM, Selvin S. Lowered weight gain during pregnancy and risk of neural tube defects among offspring. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30(1):6-65


Shaw GM, Todoroff K, Schaffer DM, Selvin S. Maternal height and prepregnancy body mass index as risk factors for selected congenital anomalies. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2000; 14(3):234-9*

Shaw GM, Todoroff K, Finnell RH, Lammer EJ. Spina bifida phenotypes in infants or fetuses of obese mothers. Teratology 2000 May; 61(5):376-81

Shaw GM, Barber R, Todoroff K, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH. Microsatellites proximal to leptin and leptin receptor as risk factors for spina bifida. Teratology 2000; 61:231-5


Lam PK, Torfs CP, Brand RJ. A low prepregnancy body mass index is a significant risk factor for an offspring with gastroschisis. Epidemiology 1999; 10(6):717-721


Shaw GM, Velie EM, Schaffer D. Risk of neural tube defect-affected pregnancies among obese women. Journal of the American Medical Association 1996; 275(14):1093-1096


Robert E, Francannet C, Shaw GM. Neural tube defects and maternal weight reduction in early pregnancy. Reproductive Toxicology 1995 Jan-Feb; 9(1):57-59

Downloadable study summaries:

PDF file Neural Tube Defects and Obesity
PDF file Los Defectos del Tubo Neural Y la Obesidad

*This study was partly funded by the Cigarette and Tobacco Surtax Fund of the State of California through the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California, Grants 1RT466 and 3RT0413.