Multivitamins/Folic Acid References:


Shaw GM, Iovannisci DM, Yang W, Finnell RH, Carmichael SL, Cheng S, Lammer EJ. Risks of human conotruncal heart defects associated with 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms of selected cardiovascular disease-related genes. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;138(1):21-26.
Ref ID: 281

Zhu H, Curry S, Wen S, Wicker NJ, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Yang W, Jafarov T, Finnell RH. Are the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) genes risk factors for spina bifida and orofacial clefts? Am J Med Genet A. 2005;135(3):274-277.
Ref ID: 276

Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Yang W, Schaffer DM. Periconceptional dietary intake of myo-inositol and neural tube defects in offspring. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73(3):184-187.
Ref ID: 274

Anderson JL, Waller DK, Canfield MA, Shaw GM, Watkins ML, Werler, MM. Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, and central nervous system birth defects. Epidemiology. 2005;16(1):87-92.
Ref ID: 273


Lammer EJ, Shaw GM, Iovannisci DM, Finnell RH. Periconceptional multivitamin intake during early pregnancy, genetic variation of acetyl-N-transferase 1 (NAT1), and risk for orofacial clefts. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70(11):846-852.
Ref ID: 272


Finnell RH, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ et al. Gene-nutrient interactions: importance of folates and retinoids during early embryogenesis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;198(2):75-85.
Ref ID: 270

Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Yang W , Lammer EJ. Maternal periconceptional alcohol consumption and risk for conotruncal heart defects. Birth Defects Res Part A Clin Mol Teratol 2003; 67:875-878.
Ref ID: 255

Volcik KA, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Zhu H, Finnell RH. Evaluation of infant methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, maternal vitamin use, and risk of high versus low level spina bifida defects. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical & Molecular Teratology 2003; 67(3):154-157.
Ref ID: 248

Watkins ML, Carmichael SL. Pregnancy: (d) Maternal diet, vitamins and neural tube defects. In: Caballero B TLFPe, editor. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition. London: Academic Press, 2003: 4737-4745.
Ref ID: 245

Shaw GM , Carmichael SL, Nelson V, Selvin S, Schaffer DM. Food fortification with folic acid and twinning among California infants. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2003; 19A(2):137-140. Ref ID: 244


Shaw GM , Nelson V, Carmichael SL, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH, Rosenquist TH. Maternal periconceptional vitamins: interactions with selected factors and congenital anomalies?Epidemiology 2002; 13(6):625-630.
Ref ID: 230


Windham GC, Shaw GM, Todoroff K, Swan SH. Miscarriage and use of vitamins containing folic acid. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2000; 90:261-262

Shaw GM, Croen LA, Todoroff K, Tolarova MM. Periconceptional intake of vitamin supplements and risk of multiple congenital anomalies. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2000; 93(3):188-193


Shaw GM, Todoroff K, Finnell RH, Lammer EJ, Rozen R. Infant methionine synthase variants and risk for spina bifida. Journal of Medical Genetics 1999; 36:86-87

Trembath D, Sherbondy AL, Vandyke DC, Shaw GM, Todoroff K, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH, Marker S, Lerner G, Murray JC. Analysis of select folate pathway genes, PAX3, and human T in a midwestern neural tube defect population. Teratology 1999; 59:331-341

Barber RC, Lammer EJ, Shaw GM, Greer KA, Finnell RH. The role of folate transport and metabolism in neural tube defect risk. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 1999; 66:1-9

Shaw GM, Finnell RH, Todoroff K, Rozen R, Lammer EJ. Maternal vitamin use, infant C677T mutation in MTHFR, and isolated cleft palate risk. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1999; 85:84-85


Shaw GM, Rozen R, Finnell RH, Todoroff K, Lammer EJ. Infant C677T mutation in MTHFR, maternal periconceptional vitamin use, and cleft lip. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1998; 80:196-198

Finnell RH, Greer LA, Barber RA, Piedrahita JA, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ. Neural tube and craniofacial defects with special emphasis on folate pathway genes. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine 1998; 9:38-53

Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, Murray JC, Lammer EJ. Infant TGF-alpha genotype, orofacial clefts, and maternal periconceptional multivitamin use. Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Journal 1998; 35:366-370

Barber RC, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Greer KA, Lacey SW, Wasserman CR, Finnell RH. Lack of association between mutations in the folate receptor-a gene and spina bifida. American Journal of Genetics 1998; 76:310-317

Shaw GM, Rozen R, Finnell RH, Wasserman CR, Lammer EJ. Maternal vitamin use, genetic variation of infant methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and risk for spina bifida. American Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 148(1):30-37


Shaw GM, Todoroff K, Lammer EJ. NTD phenotypes in infants and fetuses whose mothers used multivitamins containing folic acid in early pregnancy compared to those who did not. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1997; 70:330-331


Khoury MJ, Shaw GM, Moore CA, Lammer EJ, Mulinare J. Does periconceptional multivitamin use reduce the risk of neural tube defects associated with other defects? American Journal of Medical Genetics 1996; 61:30-36


Shaw GM, O'Malley CD, Wasserman CR, Tolarova MM, Lammer EJ. Maternal periconceptional use of multivitamins and reduced risk for conotruncal heart and limb reduction defects among offspring. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1995; 59(4):536-545

Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Wasserman CR, O'Malley CD, Tolarova MM. Risks of orofacial clefts in children born to women using multivitamins containing folic acid periconceptionally. Lancet 1995; 346:393-396

Tolarova M, Harris JA. Reduced recurrence of orofacial clefts after periconceptional supplementation with high-dose folic acid and multivitamins. Teratology 1995; 51(2):71-78

Shaw GM, Schaffer D, Velie EM, Morland K, Harris JA. Periconceptional vitamin use, dietary folate, and the occurrence of neural tube defects. Epidemiology 1995; 6(3):219-226

Downloadable study summaries:

PDF file Vitamins and Neural Tube DefectsWho Benefits?
PDF file Los Defectos del Tubo Cerebromedular y Las Vitaminas¿A
Quién Benefician?
PDF file Multivitamin Use and Oral Clefts
PDF file Multivitamin Use and Heart and Limb Defects