Limb Defect References:


Carmichael SL, Shaw GM,
Kaidarova Z. Congenital malformations in offspring of Hispanic and African-American women in California, 1989-1997. Birth Defects Res Part A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70(6):382-388.
Ref ID: 267

Lammer EJ, Shaw GM, Iovannisci DM, Van Waes J, Finnell RH. Maternal smoking and the risk of orofacial clefts: Susceptibility with NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms. Epidemiology 2004; 15(2):150-156.
Ref ID: 263

Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Yang W, Lammer EJ, Zhu H, Finnell RH. Limb deficiency defects, MSX1, and exposure to tobacco smoke. Am J Med Genet 2004; 125A(3):285-289.
Ref ID: 261


Shaw GM , Nelson V, Iovannisci DM, Finnell RH, Lammer EJ. Maternal occupational chemical exposures and biotransformation genotypes as risk factors for selected congenital anomalies. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 157(6):475-484.
Ref ID: 237


Shaw GM , Nelson V, Carmichael SL, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH, Rosenquist TH. Maternal periconceptional vitamins: interactions with selected factors and congenital anomalies?Epidemiology 2002; 13(6):625-630.
Ref ID: 230

Shaw GM , Nelson V, Moore CA. Prepregnancy body mass index and risk of multiple congenital anomalies. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2002; 107(3):253-255. Ref ID: 223
Ref ID: 223


Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, O'Malley CD, Nelson V, Jackson RJ. Maternal pesticide exposures from multiple sources and selected congenital anomalies. Epidemiology 1999; 10:60-66

Carmichael SL, Shaw GM. Maternal corticosteroid use and risk of selected congenital anomalies. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1999; 86:242-244


Robert E, Harris JA, Källén B. The epidemiology of preaxial limb malformations. Reproductive Toxicology 1997; 11(5):653-662


Wasserman CR, Shaw GM, O'Malley CD, Tolarova MM, Lammer EJ. Parental cigarette smoking and risk for congenital anomalies of the heart, neural tube, or limb. Teratology 1996; 53:261-267


Shaw GM, O'Malley CD, Wasserman CR, Tolarova MM, Lammer EJ. Maternal periconceptional use of multivitamins and reduced risk for conotruncal heart and limb reduction defects among offspring. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1995; 59(4):536-545

Downloadable Study Summary:

PDF file Multivitamin Use and Heart and Limb Defects