Down Syndrome References:
Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Kaidarova Z. Congenital malformations in offspring of Hispanic and African-American women in California, 1989-1997. Birth Defects Res Part A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70(6):382-388.
Hobbs CA, Sherman SL, Yi P, Hopkins SE, Torfs CP, Hine RH, Pogribna M, Rozen R, James SJ. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome. American Journal of Human Genetics 2000; 67(3):623-630
Savage AR, Petersen MB, Pattay D, Taft L, Allran K, Freeman SB, Karadima G, Avramopoulos D, Torfs CP, et. al. Elucidating the mechanisms of paternal non-disjunction of chromosome 21 in humans. Human Molecular Genetics 1998; 7(8):1221-1227
Funds for some studies were provided by the Cigarette and Tobacco Surtax Fund of the State of California through the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California, Grant 2RT0080.