Down Syndrome References:

Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Kaidarova Z. Congenital malformations in offspring of Hispanic and African-American women in California, 1989-1997. Birth Defects Res Part A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70(6):382-388.
Ref ID: 267

Hobbs CA, Sherman SL, Yi P, Hopkins SE, Torfs CP, Hine RH, Pogribna M, Rozen R, James SJ. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome. American Journal of Human Genetics 2000; 67(3):623-630

Torfs CP, Christianson RE. Effect of maternal smoking and coffee consumption on the risk of having a recognized Down syndrome pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 152(12):1185-91

Savage AR, Petersen MB, Pattay D, Taft L, Allran K, Freeman SB, Karadima G, Avramopoulos D, Torfs CP, et. al. Elucidating the mechanisms of paternal non-disjunction of chromosome 21 in humans. Human Molecular Genetics 1998; 7(8):1221-1227

Torfs CP, Christianson RE. Maternal risk factors and major associated defects in infants with Down syndrome. Epidemiology 1999; 10(3):264-270

Torfs CP, Christianson RE. Anomalies in Down syndrome individuals in a large population-based registry. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1998; 77:431-438

Torfs CP, Honoré LH, Curry CJ. Is there an association of Down syndrome and omphalocele? American Journal of Medical Genetics 1997; 73(4):393-396

Bishop J, Huether C, Torfs CP, Lorey F, Deddens J. Epidemiologic study of Down syndrome in a racially diverse California population, 1989-1991. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997; 145(2):134-147

Funds for some studies were provided by the Cigarette and Tobacco Surtax Fund of the State of California through the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California, Grant 2RT0080.