Oral Clefts References:


Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Laurent C, Rasmussen SA. Maternal nutrient intakes and risk of orofacial clefts. Epidemiology 2006; 17(3):285-291.
Ref ID: 296


Graham JM, Jr., Shaw GM. Gene-environment interactions in rare diseases that include common birth defects. Birth Defects Res.A Clin.Mol.Teratol. 2005;73:865-7.
Ref ID: 288

Shaw GM , Iovannisci DM, Yang W, Finnell RH, Carmichael SL, Cheng S, Lammer EJ. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) genetic variants, maternal smoking, vitamin use, and risk of human orofacial clefts. Am J Epidemiol 2005;162:1207-14.
Ref ID: 287

Lu W, Volcik K, Zhu H, Wen S, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH. Genetic variation in the proto-oncogene SKI and risk for orofacial clefting. Mol.Genet.Metab 2005;86:412-6.
Ref ID: 286

Lammer EJ, Shaw GM, Iovannisci DM, Finnell RH. Maternal smoking, genetic variation of glutathione s-transferases, and risk for orofacial clefts. Epidemiology 2005;16:698-701.
Ref ID: 284

Olshan AF, Shaw GM, Millikan RC, Laurent C, Finnell RH. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes as risk factors for spina bifida and orofacial clefts. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;135(3):268-273.
Ref ID: 275


Lammer EJ, Shaw GM, Iovannisci DM, Finnell RH. Periconceptional multivitamin intake during early pregnancy, genetic variation of acetyl-N-transferase 1 (NAT1), and risk for orofacial clefts. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70(11):846-852.
Ref ID: 272

Yang J, Carmichael SL, Kaidarova Z, Shaw GM. Risks of selected congenital malformations among offspring of mixed race-ethnicity. Birth Defects Res Part A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70(10):820-824.
Ref ID: 271

Finnell RH, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ et al. Gene-nutrient interactions: importance of folates and retinoids during early embryogenesis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;198(2):75-85.
Ref ID: 270

Carmichael SL, Shaw GM, Kaidarova Z. Congenital malformations in offspring of Hispanic and African-American women in California, 1989-1997. Birth Defects Res Part A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004;70(6):382-388.
Ref ID: 267

Lammer EJ, Shaw GM, Iovannisci DM, Van Waes J, Finnell RH. Maternal smoking and the risk of orofacial clefts: Susceptibility with NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms. Epidemiology 2004; 15(2):150-156.
Ref ID: 263

Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Yang W, Harris JA , Lammer EJ. Congenital malformations in births with orofacial clefts among 3.6 million California births, 1983-1997. Am J Med Genet 2004; 125A(3):250-256.
Ref ID: 262


Shaw GM , Zhu H, Lammer EJ, Yang W , Finnell RH. Genetic variation of infant reduced folate carrier (A80G) and risk of orofacial and conotruncal heart defects. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158(8):747-752.
Ref ID: 253

Carmichael SL , Nelson V, Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, Croen LA. Socio-economic status and risk of conotruncal heart defects and orofacial clefts. Paediatric & Perinatal Epidemiology 2003; 17(3):264-271.
Ref ID: 252

Shaw GM , Nelson V, Iovannisci DM, Finnell RH, Lammer EJ. Maternal occupational chemical exposures and biotransformation genotypes as risk factors for selected congenital anomalies. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 157(6):475-484. Ref ID: 237

Shaw GM , Ranatunga D, Quach T, Neri E, Correa A, Neutra RR. Trihalomethane exposures from municipal water supplies and selected congenital malformations. Epidemiology 2003; 14(2):191-199.
Ref ID: 236


Shaw GM , Nelson V, Carmichael SL, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH, Rosenquist TH. Maternal periconceptional vitamins: interactions with selected factors and congenital anomalies?Epidemiology 2002; 13(6):625-630.
Ref ID: 230

Ritz B, Yu F, Fruin S, Chapa G, Shaw GM, Harris JA. Ambient air pollution and risk of birth defects in Southern California. American Journal of Epidemiology 2002 Jan 1;155(1):17-25
Ref ID: 224

Shaw GM , Nelson V, Moore CA. Prepregnancy body mass index and risk of multiple congenital anomalies. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2002; 107(3):253-255. Ref ID: 223
Ref ID: 223


Hartsfield JK Jr., Hickman TA, Everett ET, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Finnell RA. Analysis of the EPHX1 113 polymorphism and GSTM1 homozygous null polymorphism and oral clefting associated with maternal smoking. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2001 July22; 102(1):21-4


Carmichael SL, Shaw GM. Maternal life event stress and congenital anomalies. Epidemiology 2000; 11:30-5


Shaw GM, Nelson V, Todoroff K, Wasserman CR, Neutra RR. Maternal periconceptional use of electric bed-heating devices and risk for neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. Teratology 1999; 60:124-129

Shaw GM, Lammer EJ. Maternal periconceptional alcohol consumption and risk for orofacial clefts. Journal of Pediatrics 1999; 134(3):298-303

Carmichael SL, Shaw GM. Maternal corticosteroid use and risk of selected congenital anomalies. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1999; 86:242-244

Shaw GM, Finnell RH, Todoroff K, Rozen R, Lammer EJ. Maternal vitamin use, infant C677T mutation in MTHFR, and isolated cleft palate risk. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1999; 85:84-85


Shaw GM, Rozen R, Finnell RH, Todoroff K, Lammer EJ. Infant C677T mutation in MTHFR, maternal periconceptional vitamin use, and cleft lip. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1998; 80:196-8

Tolarova MM, Cervenka J. Classification and birth prevalence of orofacial clefts. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1998; 75:126-137

Croen LA, Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, Tolarova MM. Racial and ethnic variations in the prevalence of orofacial clefts in California, 1983-1992. American Journal of Genetics 1998; 79:42-47

Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, Murray JC, Lammer EJ. Infant TGF-alpha genotype, orofacial clefts, and maternal periconceptional multivitamin use. Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Journal 1998; 35:366-370


Croen LA, Shaw GM, Sanbonmatsu L, Selvin S, Buffler PA. Maternal residential proximity to hazardous waste sites and risk for selected congenital malformations. Epidemiology 1997; 8(4):337-339


Robert E, Källén B, Harris JA. The epidemiology of orofacial clefts. 1. Some general epidemiological characteristics. Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 1996; 16:234-241

Robert E, Källén B, Harris JA. The epidemiology of orofacial clefts. 2. Associated malformations. J ournal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 1996; 16:242-248

Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, Lammer EJ, O'Malley CD, Murray JC, Basart AM, Tolarova MM. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants. American Journal of Medical Genetics 1996; 58 (3):551-561

Shaw GM, Wasserman CW, Block G, Lammer EJ. High maternal vitamin A intake and risk of anomalies of structures with a cranial neural crest cell contribution (letter). Lancet 1996; 347:899-900


Shaw GM, Lammer EJ, Wasserman CR, O'Malley CD, Tolarova MM. Risks of orofacial clefts in children born to women using multivitamins containing folic acid periconceptionally. Lancet 1995; 346:393-396

Tolarova M, Harris JA. Reduced recurrence of orofacial clefts after periconceptional supplementation with high-dose folic acid and multivitamins. Teratology 1995; 51(2):71-78

Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, O'Malley CD, Lammer EJ, Finnell RH. Orofacial clefts and maternal anticonvulsant use (letter). Reproductive Toxicology 1995; 9(1):97-98

Downloadable Study Summaries

Multivitamin Use and Oral Clefts
Smoking and Oral Clefts